Since almost all studies show that bidi smoking is by far the predominant smoking practice, it might be assumed that wherever smoking prevalence is high, bidi smoking would also be high, however this should be verified.
A compilation of per capita annual consumption by state numbers of bidis and cigarettes from NSS surveys of and ,30 is shown in Table 2. The highest per capita consumption of bidis during was in Haryana, Rajasthan and Tripura, in both rural and urban areas. The lowest values were for Bihar, Mizoram high in cigarette consumption , Orissa and Punjab.
It must be remembered that per capita consumption may not always vary in tandem with prevalence, as in some lower-income areas, per capita consumption might be lower, even though prevalence is high. From this analysis it is clear that in some of the states with the highest smoking prevalence, bidi smoking accounts for the bulk of smoking. In other states, such as the Northeastern ones, other forms of smoking are important, especially cigarettes.
Declines in per capita monthly consumption of bidis from to were registered in all but three states Table 2. The largest negative percent change in per capita bidi consumption was a decrease of A decrease of Punjab and Nagaland also had substantial declines.
A simultaneously high increase in per capita cigarette consumption, as reported from the NSS data in both rural and urban areas, is noted for Jammu and Kashmir and Mizoram.
State-wide per capita monthly tobacco consumption rural and urban in India from National Sample Survey data of and Men with no education were 1.
Two sub-populations of smokers were identified: laborers, who smoked bidis and chuttas, and white-collar workers, who were more likely to smoke cigarettes. Similarly the Mumbai survey found that prevalence of any type of tobacco use, except cigarette smoking, was inversely proportional to level of education. In urban areas it was highest in the lower-income group In the Sentinel Survey, the prevalence of bidi smoking was highest among indi-viduals in the lowest strata of monthly family income: Rs.
Among Christians, bidi smoking is moderately high in rural areas Bidi smoking is moderately high among Buddhists in both rural The numbers of Christians and Sikhs were too small for evaluation a total of six individuals. In the Karnataka survey, bidi smoking prevalence was fairly similar in all religious groups, but highest among Hindus In the urban Delhi survey mentioned earlier, prevalence of smoking was highest among Muslims It was lowest among Sikhs at 2.
Smoking was comparatively low among Hindu men Smoking This was followed by the household prevalence in the Scheduled Tribes Clearly the caste-related gradient is more pronounced in urban areas. The gradient was stronger for paan in rural areas and for alcohol in urban areas. It is associated with lower incomes in urban areas, and middle incomes in rural areas and is more common among the least educated. It tends to be most common among Muslims, closely followed by Hindus. In rural areas it is also common among Christians.
It is almost unknown among Sikhs, and low among Jains. Bidi consumption is very high among the Scheduled Castes. Per capita monthly consumption of bidis has been reported highest in Haryana, Rajasthan and Tripura. Somewhat analogously, in Maharashtra, where smokeless forms of tobacco have been popular for a long time, smoking prevalence is lower than smokeless tobacco use. An analysis of the National Family Health Survey-2 data on smoking by various demographic and socioeconomic variables gender or number of males in the household, rural residence versus urban, state, years of education, household wealth, religion, and caste is consistent with all similar findings on NSS data for household bidi consumption.
Since bidi smoking predominates over other smoking forms in the country, this was to be expected. The influence of religion on tobacco smoking behavior does not seem to be strong in India, except among the Sikhs. The Muslim religion is also officially against smoking, but overall smoking prevalence is highest among Muslims.
Almost all sects of Hinduism discourage smoking, yet smoking is highly prevalent among Hindus. The Parsee religion, which is a small minority, discourages its followers from smoking and the community is known for low smoking prevalence. In the Northeast this may be partly attributed to lower prices, where cigarettes are exempt from excise taxes.
Possible reasons for large variations and trends by state provide fertile areas for research, especially marketing practices by bidi manufacturers.
A decline in bidi smoking has been registered by the National Sample Survey since in almost all states. There is evidence from the Sentinel Survey that cigarette smoking is slowly replacing bidi smoking among youth who take up smoking, as cheaper varieties of cigarettes are now available. In addition, use of smokeless tobacco appears to be increasing among the poor, although bidi and cigarette consumption has been decreasing in the country since There was a reduction of A newspaper commented that in Himachal Pradesh the law was being ignored in public places and government offices, even by top administrators and police personnel on duty.
Smokeless products are known to be currently more popular than smoking in these four states, which may be a factor. The percentage of tobacco-using respondents supporting a ban on smoking in public places and transport was The percentage supporting increasing prices of tobacco products was The corresponding percentages in the lowest income groups up to Rs.
The proportions of tobacco-using respondents in the age group of years supporting a ban on the sale of tobacco to minors were In the age group of years, the proportions were Further support toward such policies can be created by generating greater public awareness on tobacco issues where it is lacking and implementing population-based strategies to prevent and control tobacco use. Bombay: Oxford University Press, , p Epidemiologic and histologic study of oral cancer and leukoplakia among 50, villagers in India.
Oral cancer and precancerous conditions in India. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, , pp 48, 68, 89, , Proceedings of an International Symposium. Mumbai, Oxford University Press, ; pp An epidemiologic study of oral cancer and precancerous conditions among , villagers in Maharashtra, India. Indian J Cancer. Reverse Dhumti smoking in Goa: an epidemiologic study of villagers for oral precancerous lesions.
Chronic bronchitis in rural population. Ind J Chest Dis. Chronic bronchitis in an Indian rural community. J Ass Phy India. Epidemiol- ogy of coronary heart disease in a rural Punjab populationprevalence and correlation with various risk factors. Indian Heart J. Oral submucous fibrosis in India: a new epidemic?
Natl Med J India. Tobacco use in a rural area of Bihar, India. Indian J Com Med. Chronic bronchitis in an urban locality of New Delhi an epidemiological survey. Ind J Med Res. Prevalence and patterns of smoking in Delhi: cross sectional study. Gupta PC. Survey of sociodemographic characteristics of tobacco use among 99, individuals in Bombay, India using handheld computers. Early findings from a community-based, cluster-randomized, controlled oral cancer screening trial in Kerala, India.
Smoking and mortality from tuberculosis and other diseases in India: retrospective study of 43, adult male deaths and 35, controls. Tobacco use among school personnel in Orissa.
Indian J Public Health. Tobacco use among school personnel in Bihar, India. Tobacco use among school personnel in eight Northeastern states of India. NSS Report No. A - A Tobacco use in India: prevalence and predictors of smoking and chewing in a national cross sectional household survey. Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta. Number John RM. Journal of South Asian Development. Tobacco use in Rural Indian Children.
Indian Pediatrics. Gupta PC, Ray C. Tobacco and youth in the South East Asian region. Oct-Dec ; 20; No. Tobacco consumption patterns and its health implications in India.
Health Policy. Social disparities in tobacco use in Mumbai, India: the roles of occupation, education and gender. American Journal of Public Health, June ; 95 6 : A study of lung cancer in relation to bidi smoking in different religious communities in Bombay. Report on Tobacco Control in India. Tobacco Free Initiative [webpage on the internet].
Meeting Report, Meeting on Tobacco and Religion. Tobacco Free Initiative [webpage on the Internet]. Religion and Tobacco. Suryanarayana M. Household consump- tion of tobacco in India: an economic perspective.
In: Tobacco Research in India. Proceedings of expert meeting on efforts to reduce harm; Apr , New Delhi, India. Mumbai: Tata Institute of Fundamen- tal Research; Arora M, Misra B. Indian Bidi Industry and Related Policies. Bidi Smoking and Public Health. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
In press. Tribune News service. Shimla: Smokers give ban the go-by. Mirza and Corinne G. Bidis are small, hand- rolled unfiltered imported cigarettes that consist of tobacco flakes rolled in a tendu leaf and tied with thread. Originating in Southeast Asia, flavoring agents are added to the bidis for the American market.
Flavors such as strawberry, vanilla, grape and root beer appear to appeal to youth. Though there may be a perception among youth that bidis are a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, significant health risks associated with bidi smoking have been documented in the literature.
Bidis typically deliver times as much nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide as conventional cigarettes. Surveillance of youth use of bidi cigarettes first began in when baseline data were obtained using the NYTS; adult surveillance began in Data from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System BRFSS , a state-based, random digit dialed telephone survey designed to assess various risk factors including tobacco use among a representative sample for each state and the District of Columbia of civilian, non-institutionalized adults 18 years of age and older, were used to provide adult estimates.
BRFSS data do not provide nationally representative estimates. National Youth Tobacco Survey The , and NYTS employ a three-stage cluster sample design to give a nationally representative sample of public and private school students in grades Specifics relevant to each year have been described previously and are repeated here for reference. From this group, PSUs were selected from eight strata formed on the basis of the degree of urbanization and the relative percentage of Asian, black and Hispanic students in the PSU and a probability proportional to weighted school enrollment.
At the second stage of sampling schools from the PSUs were selected with a probability proportional to weighted school enrollment. Schools with substantial numbers of Asian, black and Hispanic students were sampled at a higher rate than other schools through the use of a weighted measure of size.
The third stage of sampling consisted of randomly selecting approximately five intact classes of a required subject e. All students selected were eligible to participate in the survey.
In the NYTS 35, questionnaires were completed in schools. The school response rate was The three-stage cluster sampling methodology was used in the NYTS sample and a partial panel design including a newly drawn sample and a sampling of schools that participated in the NYTS was also incorporated. In , there were 94 PSUs in the first stage of sampling; schools were selected from these for the second stage with 83 selected randomly for the panel sample.
The third stage consisted of students drawn randomly from a required subject area. The three-stage cluster sampling methodology was repeated for the NYTS. In , there were 91 PSUs in the first stage of sampling; schools were selected from these for the Using the NYTS, bidi use among adolescents aged years was examined by gender, race and cigarette smoking status current and ever for each year.
In , the sample size was 34, The same methodology was used for the and NYTS. In , a sample of 25, individuals aged years was obtained. The age group provided 13, individuals and the age group provided 12, individuals. In , a sample of 26, individuals was obtained, 14, were years of age and 11, were years of age. Two measures of prevalence for bidi use are presented, ever bidi use and current bidi use.
Ever bidi use was assessed by asking if the participant had ever tried smoking bidis, even one or two puffs? Current bidi use was defined as having used a bidi on at least one occasion during the 30 days preceding the survey. Cigarette smoking status was determined as three mutually exclusive categories: ever, current and never users.
Ever users were assessed by participants who indicated they had ever tried cigarette smoking, even one or two puffs. If the participant had smoked conventional cigarettes on at least one occasion during the 30 days preceding the survey, they were considered current users. Participants who said they had never tried cigarette smoking, even one or two puffs were considered never smokers. Specifics relevant to each year have been described in detail previously. States are not required to use the optional modules and decide independently which to use each year.
Questions pertaining to bidi use were added as part of the optional tobacco use module in and were used by 15 states in , 13 states and the Virgin Islands in , and 10 states and the Virgin Islands in Only 5 states administered the optional tobacco use module in all three years: Arkansas, Nebraska, New Jersey, Texas and Wyoming. In order to increase statistical power, data were pooled from the participating states for each year to determine estimates of ever and current bidi use by selected characteristics.
The prevalence of bidi use in these two age groups was examined by gender, race and current cigarette smoking status. Bidi smoking prevalence was designated as two exclusive categories, ever or current bidi use. Ever bidi smoking included those participants who indicated they had ever smoked a bidi, even one or two puffs. Current bidi users were those individuals who smoked bidis every day or some days. Cigarette smoking status was categorized as three exclusive categories: current, former and never smokers.
Current cigarette smokers were those who indicated they had smoked cigarettes or more in their lifetime and now smoked cigarettes every day or some days. Former smokers had smoked cigarettes or more in their lifetime and.
Never smokers were those adults that responded they had not smoked cigarettes or more in their lifetime. The mean response rate in for these 13 states and the U. Virgin Islands was Virgin Islands, 17, individuals were sampled; were aged years and 13, were aged The mean response rate in was NYTS data were weighted to be representative of the U.
BRFSS data from each state are weighted to be representative of the population of adults greater than or equal to age 18 for that state. The number of youth who had ever tried bidis had decreased from 8. In only 5. In , 3. By , this number had decreased to 2. During all three years, older youth ages had higher rates of ever bidi use than those years of age.
For current users, this same pattern was seen, but was only statistically significant in The older youth experienced a decline in ever bidi use from Among older youth who currently smoked bidis there was a decline from 4.
This decline was not seen in the younger age group. Their rates of ever trying bidis 4. In all years, males were nearly twice as likely as females to have ever tried bidis and to be current users. Though a decrease was seen from among males in ever trying bidis Similarly, for male current users, there was a decrease from 4. Females showed no statistically significant change in current bidi use from 2. There was a decrease in rates of ever using bidis among white youth from 7.
A similar pattern was seen for white current Source: National Youth Tobacco Survey, Non-whites generally had higher rates of ever and current bidi use compared to white youth across the three years examined. The percentage of black youth who had ever tried bidis was halved from The decrease in current use from 3.
Hispanic youths ever bidi use decreased from A significant decrease from 4. However, a significant increase occurred from to 4. Asian youth did not experience any statistically significant changes among rates of ever bidi use 7.
Youth in the other category, which encompasses American Indians, Alaska Natives and Pacific Islanders and any youth that do not identify as white, black, Hispanic or Asian, experienced a decrease in rates of ever bidi use from Don't have an account?
Upon its release, Poetic Justice received mixed to negative reviews with most critics comparing it unfavorably to the critically acclaimed film, also by Singleton, Boyz n the Hood. Much of the acclaim was directed to the performances by both Jackson and Shakur, with criticism stemming from the writing and story line.
The site's consensus states; "Poetic Justice is commendably ambitious and boasts a pair of appealing stars, but they're undermined by writer-director John Singleton's frustrating lack of discipline.
Despite the middling reviews from mainstream critics, the film is considered by many as one of Singleton's most enduring films. Golden Globe Awards. Golden Raspberry Awards. MTV Movie Awards. Remember Me. Due to the film's casting of two major music stars of the time, there was a lot of hype surrounding the release of the movie.
Many were excited to see how the dynamic between Janet Jackson and Tupac Shakur would manifest itself in the film both visually and musically. On the soundtrack, each artist was given a single song. Tupac's "Definition of a Thug Nigga" is an example of braggadocios, violent rap music. The song conflates lyrics of degrading women with aggressive threats and discussions of firearms.
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Not good. Music is okay not the best choice for this soundtrack This was a gift for my sister to bring back some old memories and I must have overlooked the very fine print stated non of the songs were sang by orig. Format: Audio CD. I remember this soundtrack mainly because of Pete Rock and C. Smooth's "One in a Million". It is very hard to find that song anywhere. I would have enjoyed this soundtrack more if Janet Jackson's "Again" or any Janet song was on here since she is the star of the movie but I guess it had to do with contractual reasons, as another reviewer said.
There are 16 customer reviews and 18 customer ratings. See all 16 customer reviews. Write a customer review. Customers who bought this item also bought. Menace II Society [Explicit].
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